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LAB VALUES                                                                                                           

 

 

 

ALPHA-1 ANTITRYPSIN

 

Normal: 150 to 350 mg/dL

 

ANTI-STREPTOLYSIN O TITER (STREPTOZYME, ASO or ASLO titer)

 

Normal: <160 Todd units

 

Elevated in:

Streptococcal upper airway infection, acute rheumatic fever, acute glomerulonephritis, increased levels of 13-lipoprotein

NOTE: 4-fold increase between acute and convalescent titres is diagnostic of regardless of the initial titer

 

ANTIHROMBIN III

 

Normal: 81% to 120% of normal activity; 17-30 mg/dl

 

Decreased in:

Hereditary deficiency of antithrombin III, DIC, pulmonary embolism, cirrhosis, thrombolytic therapy, chronic liver failure, post-surgery, third trimester of pregnancy, oral contraceptives, nephrotic syndrome, IV heparin > 3 days, sepsis, acute leukemia, carcinoma, thrombophlebitis

 

Elevated in:

Warfarin drugs, post-MI

 

ARTERIAL BLOOD GASES

 

Normal:            PO2: 75-100 mm Hg

PCO2: 35-45 mm Hg

HCO3: 24-28 mEq/L

pH: 7.35-7.45

 

ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE (AST, SGOT) (see liver labs)

 

Normal: 0-35 U/L

 

Elevated in:

Liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis, Reye’s syndrome), hepatic congestion, infectious mononucleosis, MI, myocarditis, severe muscle trauma, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, muscular dystrophy, drugs (antibiotics, narcotics, antihypertensive agents, heparin, labetalol, statin-drugs, NSAIDs, phenytoin, amiodarone, chlorpromazine), malignancy, renal and pulmonary infarction, convulsions, eclampsia

 

BASOPHIL COUNT

 

Normal: 0.4% to 1% of total WBC; 40-100 mm3

 

Elevated in:

Leukemia, inflammatory processes, polycythemia vera, Hodgkin’s, hemolytic anemia, post-splenectomy, myeloid metaplasia, myxedema

 

Decreased in:

Stress, hypersensitivity reaction, steroids, pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, post-irradiation

 

BILIRUBIN, TOTAL (see liver labs)

 

Normal: 0-1.0 mg/dl (2-18 mmol/L)

 

Elevated in:

Liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis, cholangitis, neoplasm, biliary obstruction, infectious mononucleosis), hereditary disorders (Gilbert’s disease, Dubin-Johnson syndrome), drugs (steroids, diphenylhydantoin, phenothiazines, penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, captopril, amphotericin B, sulfonamides, azathioprine, isoniazid, 5-aminosalicylic acid, allopurinol, methyldopa, indomethacin, halothane, oral contraceptives, procainamide, tolbutamide, labetalol), hemolysis, pulmonary embolism or infarct, hepatic congestion secondary to CHF

 

BILIRUBIN, DIRECT (conjugated bilirubin)

 

Normal: 0-0.2 mg/dl (0-4 mmol/L)

 

Elevated in:

Hepatocellular disease, biliary obstruction, drug-induced cholestasis, hereditary disorders (Dubin-Johnson syndrome, Rotor’s syndrome)

 

BILIRUBIN, INDIRECT (unconjugated)

 

Normal: 0.0-1.0 mg/dl

 

Elevated in:

Hemolysis, liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis, neoplasm), secondary to congestive heart failure, hereditary disorders (Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Gilbert’s disease)

 

BLEEDING TIME (modified Ivy method)

 

Normal: 2 to 9 ½ minutes

 

Elevated in:

Thrombocytopenia, capillary wall abnormalities, platelet abnormalities (Bemard-Soulier disease, Glanzmann’s disease), drugs (aspirin, warfarin, antiinflammatory medications, streptokinase, urokinase, dextran, (B-lactam antibiotics, moxalactam), DIC, cirrhosis, uremia, myeloproliferative disorders, Von Willebrand’s disease

 

ACETONE (serum or plasma)

 

Normal: Negative

 

Elevated in:

DKA, starvation, isopropanol ingestion

 

ACID PHOSPHATASE (serum)

 

Normal: 0-5.5 U/L

 

Elevated in:

Carcinoma of prostate, other neoplasms (breast, bone), Paget’s disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, malignant invasion of bone, Gaucher’s disease, multiple myeloma, myeloproliferative disorders, benign prostatic hyper- trophy, prostatic palpation or surgery, hyperparathyroidism, liver disease, chronic renal failure, ITP, bronchitis

 

ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (ALT, SGPT) (see liver labs)

 

Normal: 0-35 U/L

 

Elevated in:

Liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis, Reye’s syndrome), hepatic congestion, infectious mononucleosis, MI, myocarditis, severe muscle trauma, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, muscular dystrophy, drugs (antibiotics, narcotics, antihypertensive agents, heparin, labetalol, lovastatin and other statins, NSAIDs, amiodarone, chlorpromazine, phenytoin), malignancy, renal and pulmonary infarction, convulsions, eclampsia, shock liver

 

ALBUMIN (serum)

 

Pre-albumin has 2-3 day half-life / Albumin has 20 day half-life

 

Normal: 4-6 g/dl (40-60 g/L)

 

Elevated in:

Dehydration (relative increase)

 

Decreased in:

Liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, poor nutritional status, rapid IV hydration, protein-losing enteropathies (inflammatory bowel disease), severe burns, neoplasia, chronic inflammatory diseases, pregnancy, oral contraceptives, prolonged immobilization, lymphomas, too much vitamin A, chronic glomerulonephritis

 

ALDOLASE (serum)

 

Normal: 0-6 U/L

 

Elevated in:

Muscular dystrophy, rhabdomyolysis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, trichinosis, acute hepatitis and other liver diseases, MI, prostatic carcinoma, hemorrhagic pancreatitis, gangrene, delirium tremens, burns

 

Decreased in:

Loss of muscle mass, late stages of muscular dystrophy

 

ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (serum) (see liver labs)

 

Normal: 30-120 U/L

 

Elevated in:

Biliary obstruction, cirrhosis (esp. primary biliary cirrhosis), liver disease (hepatitis, infiltrative liver diseases, fatty metamorphosis), Paget’s disease of bone, osteitis deformans, rickets, osteomalacia, too much vitamin D, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, ulcerative colitis, bowel perforation, bone metastases, healing fractures, bone neoplasms (except not purely lytic lesions), acromegaly, infectious mononucleosis, CMV infections, sepsis, pulmonary infarction, CHF, hypernephroma, leukemia, myelofibrosis, multiple myeloma, drugs (estrogens, albumin, erythromycin and other antibiotics, cholestasis-producing drugs [phenothiazines]), pregnancy, puberty

 

Decreased in:

Hypothyroidism, pernicious anemia, hypophosphatemia, hypervitaminosis D, malnutrition

           

Note: GI alk. phos. (heat stabile) / liver alk. phos. (heat labile)

Note: cause by bone formation (not destruction)

 

 

AMMONIA (serum)

 

Normal: 10-80 mg/dl

 

Elevated in:

Hepatic failure, hepatic encephalopathy, Reye’s syndrome, portacaval shunt, drugs (diuretics, polymyxin B, methicillin)

 

Decreased in:

Drugs (neomycin, lactulose, tetracycline), renal failure

 

AMYLASE (serum)

 

Normal: 0-130 U/L

 

Elevated in:

Acute pancreatitis, pancreatic neoplasm, abscess, pseudocyst, ascites, macroamylasemia, perforated peptic ulcer, intestinal obstruction, intestinal infarction, acute cholecystitis, appendicitis, ruptured ectopic pregnancy, salivary gland inflammation, peritonitis, burns, diabetic ketoacidosis, renal insufficiency, drugs (morphine), carcinomatosis of lung, esophagus, ovary, acute ethanol ingestion, mumps, prostate tumors, post-ERCP, bulimia, anorexia nervosa

 

Decreased in:

Advanced chronic pancreatitis, hepatic necrosis, cystic fibrosis

 

ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE level)

 

Normal: < 40 nmol/ml/min

 

Elevated in: [admit it, you didn’t know any of these!!!]

Sarcoidosis, primary biliary cirrhosis, alcoholic liver disease, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, diabetes mellitus, amyloidosis, multiple myeloma, lung disease (asbestosis, silicosis, berylliosis, allergic alveolitis, coccidioidomycosis), Gaucher’s disease, leprosy

 

ANION GAP

 

Normal: 9-14 mEq/L

 

Elevated in:

Lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis (DKA, alcoholic starvation), uremia (chronic

renal failure), ingestion of toxins (paraldehyde, methanol, ASA, ethylene glycol), hyperosmolar nonketotic coma, antibiotics (carbenicillin)

 

Decreased in:

Hypoalbuminemia, severe hypermagnesemia, IgG myeloma, lithium toxicity, hypercalcemia via PTH, antibiotics (e.g., polymyxin), lab error (falsely decreased sodium or overestimation of bicarbonate or chloride)

 

ANTI-DNA (see ANA)

 

ANTIMITOCHONDRIAL ANTIBODY (AMA)

 

Normal: < 1:20 titer

 

Elevated in:

Primary biliary cirrhosis (85-95% sensitive)

Chronic active hepatitis (25-30% sensitive)

Cryptogenic cirrhosis (25-30% sensitive)

 

ANTINEUTROPHIL CYTOPLASMIC ANTIBODY (ANCA)

 

Positive test:

Cytoplasmic (cANCA): Wegener’s, Churg-Strauss (usu. Anti-MPO), others

Perinuclear (pANCA): vasculitides, IBD, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, RPGN 

 

Cause of ANCA positivity

Vasculitides: MPA (microscopic polyangiitis) and PAN

Infection: HIV, mycobacterium, endocarditis, pneumonia, hepatitis (see HCV and cryoglobulinemia), viral enteritis, mucoviscidosis,

Neoplasm: atrial myxoma, bronchogenic CA, hypernephroma, colon CA, myelodysplasia, NHL

Other: eosinophilic myalgia syndrome, Sweet syndrome, Anti-GBM

 

C-ANCA for vasculitis (60-80% sensitivity, 95% specificity) / vasculitides tend to be anti-Pr3 or anti-MPO whereas other C-ANCA positive conditions tend to have anti-Lf and others

 

ANCA positive in several autoimmune diseases, the importance yet to be determined (ANCA titres have been shown not to correlate with disease activity with IBD)

 

Autoimmune hepatitis (40%), PBC (40%), PSC (65%), ulcerative colitis (60%), Crohn’s (20%), RA (50%), Ankylosing Spondylitis (15%), relapsing polychondritis

 

C-ANCA vasculitides occur in up to 25% of long-term (5 to 15 yrs, even < 8 months) anti-thyroid meds (PTU >> methimazole) and in newly diagnosed Type I diabetes (case reports)

 

ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODY (ANA) (anti-RNP antibody, anti-Sm, anti-Smith, etc)

 

Normal: < 1:20 titer

 

Positive test:

Rheumatic: SLE (more significant if titer > 1:160), RA, scleroderma, MCTD, necrotizing vasculitis, Sjogren’s

Drugs: phenytoin, ethosuximide, primidone, methyldopa, hydralazine, carbamazepine, penicillin, procainamide, chlorpromazine, griseofulvin, thiazides

Other: chronic active hepatitis, tuberculosis, pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, age over 60 years (particularly age over 80), EBV, biliary cirrhosis

 

CALCITONIN (serum)

 

Normal: < 100 pg/ml

 

Elevated in:

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (particularly if level >1500 pg/ml),

carcinoma of the breast, APUDomas, carcinoids, renal failure, thyroiditis

 

CALCIUM (serum) (see calcium metabolism)

Normal: 8.8-10.3 mg/dl (2.2-2.58 mmol/L)

 


Coagulation factors

 

I

Fibrinogen                            

Liver

120

Substrate for fibrin clot (CP)

II

Prothrombin                           

Liver (VKD)

60

Serine protease CP)

V

Proaccelerin, labile factor   

Liver

12-36

Cofactor (CP)

VII

Serum prothrombin conversion accelerator, proconvertin   

Liver (VKD)

 

6                

? Serine protease (EP)

VIII

Antihemophilic factor or globulin

Endothelial cells and ?other

12

Cofactor (IP)

IX

Plasma thromboplastin component, Christmas factor

Liver (VKD)

24

Serine protease (IP)

X

Stuart-Prower factor                             

Liver (VKD)

36

Serine protease (CP)

XI

Plasma thromboplastin antecedent

?Liver

40-84                

Serine protease (IP)

XII

Hageman factor                                                     

?Liver

50

Serine protease contact activation (IP)

XIII

Fibrin-stabilizing factor                                                        

?Liver    

96-180                

Trans glutaminase (CP)

Prekallikrein

Fletcher factor                                       

?Liver    

?

Serine protease contact activation (IP)

HMWK

Fitzgerald factor, Flaujeac or Williams factor                    

?Liver

?

Cofactor, contact activation (IP)

 

CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN

 

Normal: Saturation of hemoglobin < 2%; smokers < 9% (coma; 50%; death: 80%)

 

Elevated in:

Smoking, exposure to smoking, automobile exhaust, gas-burning appliances

 

CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN (CEA)

 

Nonsmokers: 0-2.5 ng/rnl

Smokers: 0-5 ng/rnl

 

Elevated in:

higher elevations (>20 ng/ml): colorectal CA, pancreatic CA, and metastatic disease

lesser elevations: CA of esophagus, stomach, small intestine, liver, breast, ovary, lung and thyroid

levels < 10 ng/ml: smoking, IBD, hypothyroidism, cirrhosis, pancreatitis, infections

 

CAROTENE (serum)

 

Normal: 50-250 mg/dl

 

Elevated in:

Carotenemia, chronic nephritis, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, hyperlipidemia

 

Decreased in:

Fat malabsorption, steatorrhea, pancreatic insufficiency, lack of carotenoids in diet, high fever, liver disease

 

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF) (see meningitis)

 

Normal appearance: clear

 

Glucose: 40-70 mg/dl (2.2-3.9 mmol/L)

Protein: 20-45 fig/dl (0.20-0.45 g/L)

Chloride: 116-122 mEq/L (116-122 mmol/L)

Pressure: 100-200 mm H2O

Cell count (cells/mm3) and cell type: < 6 lymphocytes, no PMNs

Complications of LP: Headache (in 40%, usually < 1 week) / Rare (0.3%): headaches lasting from 8 days to 1 year, cranial neuropathies, prolonged backache, nerve root injury, meningitis

Note: the risk of ABM because of LP is 0.2%, lawsuits have been settled just as an organism settles on an LP tray (you really should wear a mask!) / also be careful with CSF leak as LP can produce transient reversal of flow and inoculation of nasopharyngeal organisms

 

CERULOPLASMIN

 

Normal: 20-35 mg/dL

 

Elevated in:

Pregnancy, estrogens, oral contraceptives, neoplastic diseases (leukemias, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, carcinomas), inflammatory states, SLE, primary biliary cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis

 

Decreased in:

Wilson’s disease (values often < 10 mg/dl), nephrotic syndrome, advanced liver disease, malabsorption, TPN, Menkes’ syndrome

 

CHLORIDE (serum)

 

Normal: 95-105 mEq/L (95-105 mrno1/L)

 

Elevated in:

Dehydration, excessive infusion of normal saline solution, cystic fibrosis, hyperparathyroidism, RTA, metabolic acidosis, prolonged diarrhea

Drugs (ammonium chloride administration, acetazolamide, boric acid, triamterene)

 

Decreased in:

CHF, SIADH, Addison’s disease, vomiting, gastric suction, salt-losing nephritis, continuous infusion of D5W, thiazide diuretics, diaphoresis, diarrhea, burns, DKA

 

CHOLESTEROL, TOTAL

 

Normal: < 200 mg/dl

 

Elevated in:

Primary hypercholesterolemia, biliary obstruction, diabetes mellitus, nephrotic syndrome, hypothyroidism, primary biliary cirrhosis, high cholesterol diet, 3rd trimester of pregnancy, MI, drugs (steroids, phenothiazines, oral contraceptives)

 

Decreased in:

Starvation, malabsorption, sideroblastic anemia, thalassemia, abetalipoproteinemia, hyperthyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, hepatic failure, MM, polycythemia vera, CML, myeloid metaplasia, Waldenstrom’s, myelofibrosis

 

LUPUS ANTICOAGULANT

 

Positive in:

SLE, drug-induced lupus

 

Positive but not necessarily related to APA syndrome:

long-term phenothiazine therapy, multiple myeloma, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, postpartum, hemophilia, neoplasms, chronic inflammatory states, AIDS, nephrotic syndrome, HCV (~20%)

 

Anti-cardiolipins

 

Note: Elevated IgG and/or IgM are important (people still not sure about IgA)

In true APA syndrome, the numbers will often be on the higher side > 30, in incidental or reactive cases, the numbers tend to be lower

 

Anti-B2GPI (must send to specialized lab)

This can be the only positive test in patients with clinically significant APA syndrome. It is generally mutually exclusive with anti-prothrombin antibodies.

 

Anti-prothrombin

            Available only some research labs

 

COAGULATION FACTORS

Factor reference ranges:

V:         > 10%

VII:      >10%

VIII:     50% to 170%

IX:       60% to 136%

X:         >10%

XI:       50% to 150%

XII:      >30%

 

COLD AGGLUTININS TITER

 

Normal: < 1:32

 

Elevated in:

Infections: Mycoplasma pneumonia, EBV, CMV, malaria

Others: hepatic cirrhosis, acquired hemolytic anemia, frostbite, multiple myeloma, lymphoma

 

COMPLEMENT (C3, C4) [activation cascade]

 

Normal C3: 70-160 mg/ml (0.7-1.6 g/L)

Normal C4: 20-50 mg/dl (0.2-0.4 g/L)

Normal THC: 150-200 (units/ml)

 

THC or total hemolytic complement assay requires all 9 components to be normal (many false negatives due to improper specimen handling or cold activation

 

Note: C4 decreases before C3 in the classic pathway, which may affect the lab picture in acute setting.

 

CH50 measures activity of ?classical pathway

 

COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT [see heme for explanations]

 

WBC 3200-9800 mm3

 

RBC

Male:                4.3-5.9             106mm3

Female:            3.5-5                106mm3

 

Hemoglobin

Male:                13.6-17.7          

Female:            12-15                

 

Hematocrit

Male:                39% to 49%    

Female:            33% to 43%

 

MCV:              76-100 mm3      

MCH:                                                               

MCHC:            33-37  

RDW:              11.5% to 14.5%

 

Platelets:         130-400 x 103/mm3

 

Differential:

2-6 stabs (bands, early mature neutrophils)

60-70 segs (mature neutrophils )

1-4 eosinophils

0-1 basophils

2-8 monocytes

25-40 lymphocytes

 

COOMBS, DIRECT

 

Positive in:

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, erythroblastosis fetalis, transfusion reactions

Drugs: a-methyldopa, penicillins, tetracycline, sulfonamides, levodopa, cephalosporins, quinidine, insulin)

Note: false positives may be seen with cold agglutinins

 

COOMBS, INDIRECT

 

Positive in:

Acquired hemolytic anemia, incompatible cross-matched blood, anti-Rh antibodies

Drugs: methyldopa, mefenamic acid, levodopa

 

COPPER (serum)

 

Normal: 70-140 mg/dL

 

Elevated in:

Aplastic anemia, biliary cirrhosis, SLE, hemochromatosis, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, infection, iron deficiency anemia, leukemia, lymphoma, oral contraceptives, pernicious anemia, rheumatoid arthritis

 

Decreased in:

Wilson’s disease, Menkes’ syndrome, malabsorption, malnutrition, nephrosis, TPN, acute leukemia in remission

 

CORTISOL (plasma) [see pituitary work-up]

 

Normal: varies with time of collection

 

circadian variation

8 AM: 4-19 mg/dL

4 PM: 2-15 mg/dL  

 

Elevated in:

Ectopic ACTH production (lung CA), adrenal or pituitary hyperplasia or adenomas, loss of normal diurnal variation, pregnancy, chronic renal failure, iatrogenic, stress

 

Decreased in:

Primary adrenocortical insufficiency, anterior pituitary hypofunction, secondary adrenocortical insufficiency, adrenogenital syndromes

 

CORTICOTROPIN [see pituitary work-up]

            < 10 is very low

 

C-PEPTIDE

 

Elevated in:

Insulinoma, sulfonylurea administration

 

Decreased in:

IDDM, factitious insulin administration

 

C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (CRP)

 

Normal: 6.8-820 mg/dL

 

Elevated in:

Rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, IBD, bacterial infections, MI, oral contraceptives, third trimester of pregnancy (acute-phase reactant), inflammatory and neoplastic diseases

 

Note: this test really cannot be used to differentiate between these different processes

Note: see highly specific C-reactive protein

Trends: hs-CRP levels are useful markers along with LDL, etc. for predicting cardiovascular risk. Still not shown whether causal or not. 6/06

 

 

CREATINE KINASE (CK, CPK)

 

Normal: 0-130 U/L

 

Elevated in:

MI, myocarditis, rhabdomyolysis, myositis, crush injury/trauma, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, vigorous exercise, muscular dystrophy, myxedema, seizures, malignant hyperthermia syndrome, IM injections, CVA, pulmonary embolism/infarction, acute aortic dissection

 

Decreased in:

Steroids, decreased muscle mass, connective tissue disorders, alcoholic liver disease, metastatic neoplasms (huh?)

 

CREATINE KINASE ISOENZYMES

 

CK-MB (see cardiac labs)

 

Elevated in:

MI, myocarditis, pericarditis, muscular dystrophy, cardiac defibrillation, cardiac contusion, cardiac surgery, extensive rhabdomyolysis, strenuous exercise (marathon runners), mixed connective tissue disease, cardiomyopathy, hypothermia

 

With normal troponins

Low CKMB fraction: extensive skeletal muscle trauma, rhabdomyolysis

High CKMB fraction: polymyositis, muscular dystrophy, myopathies, chronic renal insufficiency, vigorous exercise

 

Prostate and bronchogenic carcinomas rarely secrete CKMB (and CKBB)

Hypothyroidism causes delayed clearance of CKMB and total CPK

 

 

CK-MM

 

Elevated in:

crush injury, seizures, malignant hyperthermia syndrome, rhabdomyolysis, myositis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, vigorous exercise, muscular dystrophy, IM injections, acute aortic dissection

 

CK-BB

 

Elevated in:

CVA, subarachnoid hemorrhage, neoplasms (prostate, GI tract, brain, ovary, breast, lung), severe shock, bowel infarction, hypothermia meningitis

 

CREATININE (serum)

 

Normal: 0.6-1.2 mg/dl (50-110 mmol/L)

 

Elevated:

renal failure

 

Decreased:

decreased muscle mass (amputees, elderly, prolonged debilitation), pregnancy (from increased GFR)

 

Falsely elevated: DKA (serum acetoacetate may interfere with assay), some cephalosporins (e.g., cefoxitin, cephalothin), cimetidine and trimethoprim reduce tubular secretion of creatinine (GFR remains normal),

 

CREATININE CLEARANCE (see formula)

 

Normal: 75-124 ml/min

 

Elevated:

pregnancy, exercise

 

Decreased:

renal failure, drugs (cimetidine, procainamide, antibiotics, quinidine

 

CRYOGLOBULINS (serum)

 

  • False negative are not uncommon, and careful handling is required to obtain an accurate measurement. While the patient is in a fasting state (since lipids may interfere with the test), at least 20 ml of blood should be drawn into a tube that has not been treated with anticoagulant. The specimen should be transported and centrifuged at 37°C (do not allow sample to get cold!). The serum should then be kept for more than 72 hours (even 7-10 days) at 4°C to allow for precipitation of cryoglobulins.
  • differentiate from lipid by centrifugation (lipid rises)

 

Positive: CTD’s, CLL, hemolytic anemias, multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, chronic active hepatitis (e.g. HCV), Hodgkin’s

 

 

EOSINOPHIL COUNT

 

Normal: 1-4%

 

Elevated:

allergy, parasitic infestations (trichinosis, aspergillosis, hydatidosis), angioneurotic edema, drug reactions, warfarin sensitivity, collagen-vascular diseases, acute hypereosinophilic syndrome, eosinophilic nonallergic rhinitis, myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, radiation therapy, NHL, L-tryptophan ingestion, urticaria, pernicious, anemia, pemphigus, inflammatory bowel disease, bronchial asthma, atheroembolic syndrome?

 

FECAL EOSINOPHILS

Elevated in eosinophilic gastroenteritis, but not necessarily IBD (they are active in IBD, but their numbers are normal to mildly elevated)

 

ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE (ESR) (Westergren)

 

Normal:

Male: 0-15 mm/hr

Female: 0-20 mm/hr

 

Elevated in:

CTD’s, infections, MI, neoplasms, inflammatory states (acute-phase reactant), hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, very severe hyperlipidemia, rouleaux formation

 

Decreased in:

sickle cell disease, polycythemia, corticosteroids, spherocytosis, anisocytosis, hypofibrinogenemia, increased serum viscosity

 

FECAL FAT, QUANTITATIVE (72 hr collection)

 

Normal: 2-6 g/24 hr

 

Elevated: malabsorption

 

FERRITIN (serum)

 

Normal: 18-300 ng/mL (18-200 for females)

 

Elevated in:

Hyperthyroidism, inflammatory states, liver disease (ferritin elevated from necrotic hepatocytes), neoplasms (neuroblastomas, lymphomas, leukemia, breast carcinoma), iron replacement therapy, hemochromatosis, hemosiderosis

 

Decreased in:

Iron deficiency anemia (there are 3 more things, which I forget)

 

ALPHA-1 FETOPROTEIN (AFP)

 

Normal: 0-20 ng/ml

 

Elevated in:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (usu. > 1000 ng/ml), germinal neoplasms (testis, ovary, mediastinum, retroperitoneum), liver disease (alcoholic cirrhosis, acute hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis), fetal anencephaly, spina bifida, basal cell carcinoma, breast carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, retinoblastoma, esophageal atresia

 

FIBRIN SPLIT PRODUCTS (FDP or FSP)

 

Normal: < 10 mg/ml

 

Elevated in:

DIC, primary fibrinolysis, pulmonary embolism, severe liver disease

 

False Positives:

baseline ~10% (no associated disease) / presence of rheumatoid factor / 40% of lung disease (pneumonia, lung CA)

 

FIBRINOGEN

 

Normal: 200-400 mg/dl

 

Elevated in:

Tissue inflammation or damage (acute-phase protein reactant), oral contraceptives, pregnancy, acute infection, MI

 

Decreased in:

DIC, hereditary afibrinogenemia, liver disease, primary or secondary

fibrinolysis, cachexia

 

FOLATE (FOLIC ACID)

 

Normal:            Plasma: 2-10 ng/ml

RBC: 140-960 ng/ml

 

Decreased in:

Folic acid deficiency (inadequate intake, malabsorption), alcoholism, drugs (methotrexate, trimethoprim, phenytoin, oral contraceptives, azalfidine), vitamin B12 deficiency (defective red cell folate absorption), hemolytic anemia

 

Elevated in:

Folic acid therapy

 

FREE THYROXINE INDEX (see other)

 

Normal: 1.1-4.3

 

FTA-ABS (serum)

Reactive in: Syphilis, other treponemal diseases (yaws, pinta, bejel), SLE, pregnancy

 

GASTRIN (serum)

 

Normal: 0-180 pg/mL

 

Elevated in:

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma), pernicious anemia, hyperparathyroidism, retained gastric antrum, chronic renal failure, gastric ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis, pyloric or gastric outlet obstruction, malignant neoplasms of the stomach, H2 blockers, omeprazole, calcium therapy, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis

 

Note: only gastrinoma will have increased gastrin with secretin infusion, whereas most of other conditions will have decreased or no change

 

GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE ANTIBODY (anti-GBM)

 

Positive in: Goodpasture’s syndrome

 

GLUCOSE, FASTING

 

Normal: 70-110 mg/dl (3.9-6.1 mmo1/L)

 

Elevated in:

Diabetes mellitus, stress, infections, MI, CVA, Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly, acute pancreatitis, glucagonoma, hemochromatosis, drugs (glucocorticoids, diuretics [thiazides, loop diuretics]), glucose intolerance

 

Decreased:

 

GLUCOSE, POSTPRANDIAL

 

Normal: <140 mg/dL

 

Elevated in:

Diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance

 

Decreased in:

Postgastrointestinal resection, reactive hypoglycemia, hereditary fructose intolerance, galactosemia, leucine sensitivity

 

GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST

 

Normal values above fasting:

 

30 min: 30-60 mg/dl

60 min: 20-50 mg/dl 

120 min: 5-15 mg/dl

180 min: fasting level or below

 

Abnormal in:

Glucose intolerance, diabetes mellitus, Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly, pheochromocytoma, gestational diabetes

 

GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE SCREEN (blood)

 

If a deficiency is detected, quantitation of G6PD is necessary; a G6PD screen may be falsely interpreted as "normal" after an episode of hemolysis because most G6PD deficient cells have been destroyed.

 

y-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE (GGT)

 

Normal: 0-30 U/L

 

Elevated in:

Chronic alcoholic liver disease, neoplasms (hepatoma, metastatic disease to the liver, carcinoma of the pancreas), SLE, CHF, trauma, nephrotic syndrome, sepsis, cholestasis, drugs (phenytoin, barbiturates)

 

GLYCATED (GLYCOSYLATED) HEMOGLOBIN (HbA1c)

 

Normal: 4.0% to 6.7%

 

Elevated in:

Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (glycated hemoglobin levels reflect the level of glucose control over the preceding 120 days), lead toxicity, alcoholism, iron deficiency anemia, hypertriglyceridemia

 

Decreased in:

Hemolytic anemias, decreased RBC survival, pregnancy, acute or chronic blood loss, chronic renal failure, insulinoma, congenital spherocytosis, HhS, HhC, HhD diseases

 

HAM TEST (acid serum test)

 

Positive in:

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)

 

False-positive in:

Hereditary or acquired spherocytosis, recent transfusion with aged RBC, aplastic anemia, myeloproliferative syndromes, leukemia, hereditary dyserythropoietic anemia type II (HEMPAS)

 

HAPTOGLOBIN (serum)

 

Normal: 50-220 mg/dL

 

Elevated in:

Inflammation (acute-phase reactant), collagen-vascular diseases, infections (acute-phase reactant), drugs (androgens), obstructive liver disease

 

Decreased in:

Hemolysis (intravascular more than extravascular), megaloblastic anemia, severe liver disease, large tissue hematomas, infectious mononucleosis, drugs (oral contraceptives)

 

HEMATOCRIT

 

Normal:            Male: 39-49%

Female: 33-43%

 

Elevated in:

Polycythemia vera, smoking, COPD, high altitudes, dehydration, hypovolemia

 

Decreased in:

Blood loss (GI, GU), anemia, pregnancy

 

HEMOGLOBIN

 

Normal:            Male: 13.6-17.7 g/dL

Female: 12.0-15.0 g/dL

 

Elevated in:

Hemoconcentration, dehydration, polycythemia vera, COPD, high altitudes, false elevations (hyperlipemic plasma, WBC >50,000 mm3), stress

 

Decreased in:

Hemorrhage (GI, GU), anemia  

 

HEMOGLOBIN ELECTROPHORESIS

 

Normal:

HbAl: 95-98%

HbA2: 1.5-3.5%

HbF: <2%

HbC: absent

HbS: absent

 

HEPATITIS A ANTIBODY

 

Present in:

Viral hepatitis A; can be IgM or IgG (if IgM, acute hepatitis A; if IgG, previous infection with hepatitis A)

 

HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN (HBsAg)

 

Present in:

acute viral hepatitis type B, chronic hepatitis B  

 

HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY

 

Positive in:

Infectious mononucleosis

 

HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (HDL)

 

Normal:            Male: 45-70 mg/dL

Female: 45-90 mg/dL

 

Increased:

Use of gemfibrozil, nicotinic acid, estrogens, regular aerobic exercise, small (I oz) daily alcohol intake

 

Decreased:

deficiency of apoproteins (genetic), liver disease, Tangier disease, progestins, cigarette smoking, obesity, a low-fat diet, drugs such as probucol and beta-blockers, DHEA

 

NOTE: paraproteins (such as MGUS) may actually bind to HDL (as well as bilirubin, phosphate, LDL, glucose) causing falsely low measurement of HDL (well established)

 

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS ANTIBODY, type 1 (HIV-l)

 

 HIV antibodies usually appear in the blood 1-4 months after infection.

 

Testing sequence:

 

1.ELISA is the recommended initial screening test. Sensitivity and specificity is >99%. False-positive ELISA may occur with autoimmune disorders, administration of immune globulin manufactured before 1985 within 6 weeks of testing, presence of rheumatoid factor, presence of DLA-DR antibodies in multigravida female, administration of influenza vaccine within 3 months of testing, hemodialysis, positive plasma reagin test, certain medical disorders (hemophilia, hypergammaglobulinemia, alcoholic hepatitis).  

 

2. A positive ELISA is confirmed with Western blot False-positive Western blot may be caused by connective tissue disorders, human leukocyte antigen antibodies, polyclonal gammopathies, hyperbilirubinemia, presence of antibody to another human retrovirus, cross reaction with other nonvirus-derived proteins in healthy persons. Undetermined Western blot may occur in AIDS patients with advanced immunodeficiency (from loss of antibodies), and in recent HIV infections.

 

3. PCR confirms indeterminate Western blot results or negative results in persons with suspected HIV infection.

 

5-HYDROXYINDOLE-ACETIC ACID URINE; see URINE 5-HYDROXYINDOLE-ACETIC ACID

 

Normal: Negative

 

Detected in:

Collagen-vascular disorders, glomerulonephritis, neoplastic diseases, malaria, primary biliary cirrhosis, chronic acute hepatitis, bacterial endocarditis, vasculitis

 

IMMUNOGLOBULINS

 

Normal:           IgA: 50-350 mg/dL

IgD: <6 mg/dL

IgE: <25 ng/dL

IgG: 800-1500 mg/dL

IgM: 45-150 mg/dL

 

Elevated in:

IgA: lymphoproliferative disorders, Berger’s nephropathy, chronic infections, autoimmune disorders, liver disease

IgE: allergic disorders, parasitic infections, immunologic disorders, IgE myeloma

IgG: chronic granulomatous infections, infectious diseases, inflammation, myeloma, liver disease

IgM: primary biliary cirrhosis, infectious diseases (brucellosis, malaria), Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, liver disease

 

Decreased in:

IgA: nephrotic syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy, congenital deficiency, lymphocytic leukemia, ataxia-telangiectasia, chronic sinopulmonary disease

IgE: hypogammaglobulinemia, neoplasm (breast, bronchial, cervical), ataxia-telangiectasia

IgG: congenital or acquired deficiency, lymphocytic leukemia, phenytoin, methylprednisolone, nephrotic syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy

IgM: congenital deficiency, lymphocytic leukemia, nephrotic syndrome

 

INTERNATIONAL NORMALIZED RATIO (INR)

 

Condition                                                         INR Range

Proximal deep vein thrombosis              2-3

Pulmonary embolism                                         2-3

Transient ischemic attacks                                 2-3

Atrial fibrillation                                                2-3

Mechanical prosthetic valves                             3-4.5

Recurrent venous thromboembolic disease        3-4.5

 

IRON-BINDING CAPACITY (TIBC)

 

Normal: 250-460

 

Elevated in:

Iron deficiency anemia, pregnancy, polycythemia, hepatitis, weight loss

 

Decreased in:

Anemia of chronic disease, hemochromatosis, chronic liver disease, hemolytic anemias, malnutrition (protein depletion)

 

JAK2 V617F PCR

high sensitivity, very specific / positive results correlate with presence of myeloproliferative disorder (PRV, thrombocythemia, myelofibrosis)

 

LACTATE (blood)

 

Normal: 0.5-2 mEq/L

 

LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (IDH)

 

Normal: 50-150 U/L

 

Elevated in:

MI, renal disease, liver, collagen, CNS, hemolytic anemias, megaloblastic anemias, transfusions, seizures, muscle trauma, muscular dystrophy, acute pancreatitis, hypotension, shock, infectious mononucleosis, inflammation, neoplasia, intestinal obstruction, hypothyroidism

 

LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOENZYMES

 

Normal:            LDHl: 22% to 36%

LDH2: 35% to 46% (cardiac, RBC)

LDH3: 13% to 26% (pulmonary)

LDH4: 3% to 10% (striated muscle, liver)

LDH5: 2% to 9% (striated muscle, liver)

 

Normal: LDHl <LDH2 LDHs <LDH4

 

Abnormal values:

LDHl >LDH2: MI (can also be seen with hemolytic anemias, pernicious anemia, folate deficiency, renal infarct)

LDHs >LDH4: liver disease (cirrhosis, hepatitis, hepatic congestion)

 

 

LEGIONELLA TITRE

 

Positive in:

Legionnaire’s disease (presumptive: 1:256 titer; definitive: fourfold titer increase)

 

Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase (LAP score)

 

Normal: 13-100

 

Elevated:

leukemoid reactions, neutrophilia secondary to infections (except in sickle cell crisis), Hodgkin’s, polycythemia vera, hairy cell leukemia, aplastic anemia, Down syndrome, myeloid metaplasia/myelofibrosis

 

Decreased:

AML, CML, TTP, PNH, hypophosphatemia, collagen disorders, Wilson’s disease, occasionally Hodgkin’s

 

 

LIPASE

 

Normal: 0-160 U/L

 

Elevated in:

Acute pancreatitis, perforated peptic ulcer, carcinoma of pancreas (early stage), pancreatic duct obstruction, bowel infarction, intestinal obstruction

 

LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (LDL) CHOLESTEROL (see pharm)

 

Normal: 50-190 mg/dL

 

LUPUS ANTICOAGULANT; see other

 

LYMPHOCYTES

 

Normal: 15-40%         

 

Total lymphocyte count: 800-2600/mm3

Total T-cells: 800-2200/mm3

·        CD4 lymphocytes: > 400/mm3

·        CD8 lymphocytes: 200-800/mm3

·        Normal CD4/CD8 ratio is 2.0

 

Elevated in:

Chronic infections, infectious mononucleosis and other viral infections, CLL, Hodgkin’s disease, ulcerative colitis, hypoadrenalism, ITP

 

Decreased in:

AIDS, ARC, bone marrow suppression from chemotherapeutic agents or chemotherapy, aplastic anemia, neoplasms, steroids, adrenocortical hyper- function, neurologic disorders (multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barré syndrome)

 

MAGNESIUM (serum) (see other)

 

Normal: 1.8-3.0 mg/dL

 

MEAN CORPUSCULAR VOLUME (MCV)

 

Normal: 76-100 m m3

 

Elevated in:

Vitamin B12 deficiency, folic acid deficiency, liver disease, alcohol abuse, reticulocytosis, hypothyroidism, marrow aplasia, myelofibrosis

 

Decreased in:

Iron deficiency, thalassemia syndrome and other hemoglobinopathies, anemia of chronic disease, sideroblastic anemia, chronic renal failure, lead poisoning

 

METANEPHRINES, URINE; see URINE METANEPHRINES

 

MONOCYTE COUNT

 

Normal: 2-8%

 

Elevated in:

Viral diseases, parasites, infections, neoplasms, inflammatory bowel disease, monocytic leukemia, lymphomas, myeloma, sarcoidosis

 

Decreased in:

Aplastic anemia, lymphocytic leukemia, glucocorticoid administration

 

MYOGLOBIN, URINE; see URINE MYOGLOBIN

 

NEUTROPHIL COUNT

 

Normal: 50% to 70%

 

Stabs (bands, early mature neutrophils): 2-6%

Segs (mature neutrophils): 60-70%

 

Elevated in:

Acute bacterial infections, acute MI, stress, neoplasms, myelocytic leukemia

 

Decreased in:

Viral infections, aplastic anemias, immunosuppressive drugs, radiation therapy to bone marrow, agranulocytosis, drugs (antibiotics, antithyroidals), lymphocytic and monocytic leukemias

 

5’ NUCLEOTIDASE

 

Normal: 2-16 IU/L

 

Elevated in:

Biliary obstruction, metastatic neoplasms to liver, primary biliary cirrhosis, renal failure, pancreatic carcinoma, chronic active hepatitis

 

OSMOLALITY, SERUM (see urine, stool)

 

Estimated by: glucose BUN 2([Na] + [K]) + -+ - 18 2.8

 

Osmcalc = 2 × Na+ (mmol/L) + BUN (mg/dL) / 2.8 + glucose (mg/dL) / 18

 

Normal: 280-300 mOsm/kg

 

Elevated in:

Dehydration, hypernatremia, diabetes insipidus, uremia, hyperglycemia, mannitol therapy, ingestion of toxins (ethylene glycol, methanol, ethanol), hypercalcemia, diuretics

 

Decreased in:

SIADH, hyponatremia, overhydration, Addison’s disease, hypothyroidism

 

Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)

Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT)

 

Normal: 25-41 sec

 

Elevated in:

Heparin therapy, coagulation factor deficiency (I, II, V, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII), liver disease, vitamin K deficiency, DIC, circulating anticoagulant, warfarin therapy, specific factor inhibition (PCN reaction, rheumatoid arthritis), thrombolytic therapy, nephrotic syndrome

NOTE: Useful to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation system

 

pH, Blood

 

Normal values: Arterial: 7.35-7.45

Venous 7.32-7.42

 

PHOSPHATE (serum)

 

Normal: 2.5-5 mg/dL

 

PLATELET COUNT

 

Normal: 130-400K cells/mm3

 

Elevated in:

Neoplasms (esp. GI), CML, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, infections, after splenectomy, postpartum, after hemorrhage, hemophilia, iron deficiency, pancreatitis, cirrhosis

 

Decreased in:

(see Ddx)

 

POTASSIUM (serum) (see other)

 

PROLACTIN

 

Normal: <20 ng/mL

 

Elevated in:

Prolactinomas (level >200 highly suggestive), drugs (phenothiazines, cimetidine, tricyclic antidepressants, metoclopramide, estrogens, antihypertensives [methyldopa], verapamil, haloperidol), postpartum, stress, hypoglycemia, hypothyroidism, renal failure

 

PROSTATIC SPECIFIC AN11GEN (PSA)

 

Normal: 0-4 ng/ml

 

Elevated in:

Benign prostatic hypertrophy, carcinoma of prostate, post-rectal examination, prostate trauma

 

PROTEIN (serum)

 

Normal: 6-8 g/dL

 

Elevated in:

Dehydration, multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, sarcoidosis, collagen-vascular diseases

 

Decreased in:

Malnutrition, low-protein diet, overhydration, malabsorption, pregnancy, severe burns, neoplasms, chronic diseases, cirrhosis, nephrosis

 

PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS (serum) (SPEP)            [see diagram]

 

SPEP distinguishes:

 

Monoclonal à MM, WM, NHL, CLL / cold agglutinins / type I and II cryoglobulinemia

Polyclonal à collagen vascular disease, vasculitides, type III cryoglobulinemia

 

Normal:          Albumin: 60-75%         3.6-5.2 g/dL

a-l: 1.7-5% .                 1-0.4 g/dL

a-2: 6.7-12.5%            0.4-1 g/dL 

1-ß: 8.3-16.3%            0.5-1.2 g/dL 

γ: 10.7-20%                 0.6-1.6 g/dL 

 

Elevated in:

Albumin: dehydration

a-l: neoplastic diseases, inflammation

a-2: neoplasms, inflammation, infection, nephrotic syndrome

1- ß: hypothyroidism, biliary cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus

γ: see immunoglobulins

 

Decreased in:

Albumin: malnutrition, liver disease, malabsorption, nephrotic syndrome, burns, connective tissue diseases

a-l: emphysema (a-1 antitrypsin deficiency), nephrosis

a-2: hemolytic anemias (decreased haptoglobin), severe liver damage

1- ß: hypocholesterolemia, nephrosis

γ: see immunoglobulins

 

PROTHROMBIN TIME (PT)

 

Normal: 10-12 sec

 

Elevated in:

Liver disease, oral anticoagulants (Warfarin), heparin, factor deficiency (I, II, V, VII, X), DIC, vitamin K deficiency, afibrinogenemia, dysfibrinogenemia, drugs (salicylate, chloral hydrate, diphenylhydantoin, estrogens, antacids, phenylbutazone, quinidine, antibiotics, allopurinol, anabolic steroids)

 

Decreased in:

Vitamin K supplementation, thrombophlebitis, drugs (gluthetimide, estrogens, griseofulvin, diphenhydramine)

 

PROTOPORPHYRIN (free erythrocyte)

 

Normal: 16-36 mg/dl of RBC

 

 Elevated in:

Iron deficiency, lead poisoning, sideroblastic anemias, anemia of chronic disease, hemolytic anemias, erythropoietic protoporphyria

 

RED BLOOD CELL COUNT

 

Normal:            Male: 4.3-5.9 x 106/mm3         

                                    Female: 3.5-5 x 106/mm3  

 

Elevated in:

Polycythemia vera, smokers, high altitude, cardiovascular disease, renal cell carcinoma and other erythropoietin-producing neoplasms, stress, hemoconcentration/ dehydration

Decreased in:

Anemias, hemolysis, chronic renal failure, hemorrhage, failure of marrow production

 

RED BLOOD CELL DISTRIBUTION (RDW) (measure of anisocytosis)

 

Normal: 11.5-14.5

 

Normal RDW and:

·        Elevated MCV: aplastic anemia, preleukemia

·        Normal MCV: normal, anemia of chronic disease, acute blood loss or hemolysis, CLL, CML, nonanemic enzymopathy or hemoglobinopathy

·        Decreased MCV: anemia of chronic disease, heterozygous thalassemia

 

Elevated RDW and:

·        Elevated MCV: vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, immune hemolytic anemia, cold agglutinins, CLL with high count, liver disease

·        Normal MCV: early iron deficiency, early vitamin B12 deficiency, early folate deficiency, anemic globinopathy

·        Decreased MCV: iron deficiency, RBC fragmentation, HbH disease, thalassemia intermedia

 

RED BLOOD CELL MASS (VOLUME)

 

Normal:           Male: 20-36 ml/kg of BW

 Female: 19-31 ml/kg of BW

Elevated in:

Polycythemia vera, hypoxia (smokers, high altitude, cardiovascular disease), hemoglobinopathies with high oxygen affinity, erythropoietin- producing tumors (renal cell carcinoma)

 

Decreased in:

Hemorrhage, chronic disease, failure of marrow production, anemias, hemolysis

 

RENIN (produced in kidney)

 

Elevated in:

Adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease), chronic renal failure, Bartter’s syndrome, pregnancy (normal), pheochromocytoma, renal hypertension, reduced plasma volume, secondary hyperaldosteronism

Drugs: thiazides, estrogen, minoxidil

 

Decreased in:

Primary adrenocortical hypertension, increased plasma volume, primary hyperaldosteronism

Drugs:  B-blockers (inhibit secretion of renin), reserpine, clonidine

 

RETICULOCYTE COUNT

 

Normal: 0.5-1.5%

 

Elevated in:

Hemolytic anemia (sickle cell crisis, thalassemia major, autoimmune hemolysis), hemorrhage, post-anemia therapy (folic acid, ferrous sulfate, vitamin BI2)’ chronic renal failure

 

Decreased in:

Aplastic anemia, marrow suppression (sepsis, chemotherapeutic agents, radiation), hepatic cirrhosis, blood transfusion, anemias of disordered maturation (iron deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemia, sideroblastic anemia, anemia of chronic disease)

 

RHEUMATOID FACTOR

 

Present in titer > 1:20

 

RA (80%), JRA (20%), SLE (40%), Sjögren’s (90%), ankylosing spondylitis (< 15%), but not Reiter’s/Psoriasis

Lung disease: IPF, bronchitis, silicosis

Liver: cirrhosis, hepatitis

Endocarditis, MI

acute viral illness (post-vaccination), Tb, parasites

Sarcoidosis, malignancy (multiple myeloma)

Cryoglobulinemia (90%)

other chronic inflammation, old age

 

Mucin Clot Test

 

Add acetic acid to synovial fluid (60% hyaluronate)

Normal à solid white blob

Inflamed à cloudy, white precipitate

 

SGOT; see AST

SGPT; see ALT

 

ANTISMOOTH MUSCLE ANTIBODY (Anti-SMA)

 

Normal: Negative

 

Present in:

Chronic active hepatitis (:?;1 :80), primary biliary cirrhosis (m ? I :80), infectious mononucleosis

 

SODIUM (serum) (see lytes)

 

STREPTOZIME (see ASO)

 

SUCROSE HEMOLYSIS TEST (sugar water test)

 

Positive in:

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)

           

False positive: autoimmune hemolytic anemia, megaloblastic anemias False negative: may occur with use of heparin or EDTA

 

T3 (TRIIDOTHYRONINE)

 

Normal: 75-220 ng/dL

 

T3 RESIN UPTAKE (T3RU)

 

Normal: 25-35%

 

T4, FREE (free thyroxine)

 

Normal: 0.8-2.8 ng/dl

 

TESTOSTERONE

 

Elevated in:

Adrenogenital syndrome, polycystic ovary disease

 

Decreased in:

Klinefelter’s syndrome, male hypogonadism

 

THROMBIN TIME (TT)

 

Normal: 11.3-18.5 sec

 

Elevated in:

Thrombolytic and heparin therapy, DIC, hypofibrinogenemia, dysfibrinogenemia

 

THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH)

 

Normal: 2-11.0 U/ml    

 

THYROXINE (T4)

 

Normal: 4-1111g/dL

 

TRANSFERRIN

 

Normal: 70-370 mg/dL

 

Elevated in:

Iron deficiency anemia, oral contraceptive administration, viral hepatitis, late pregnancy

 

Decreased in:

Nephrotic syndrome, liver disease, hereditary deficiency, protein malnutrition, neoplasms, chronic inflammatory states, chronic illness, thalassemia, hemochromatosis, hemolytic anemia

 

TRIGLYCERIDES

 

Normal: <160 mg/dL

 

Elevated in:

Hyperlipoproteinemias (types I, IIb, III, IV, V), hypothyroidism, pregnancy, estrogens, acute MI, pancreatitis, alcohol intake, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, glycogen storage disease

 

Decreased in:

Malnutrition, congenital abetalipoproteinemias, drugs (e.g., gemfibrozil, nicotinic acid, clofibrate)

 

UREA NITROGEN

 

Normal: 8-18 mg/dL

 

Elevated in:

Drugs (aminoglycosides and other antibiotics, diuretics, lithium, corticosteroids), dehydration, gastrointestinal bleeding, decreased renal blood flow (shock, CHF, MI), renal disease (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, diabetic nephropathy), urinary tract obstruction (prostatic hypertrophy)

 

Decreased in:

Liver disease, malnutrition, third trimester of pregnancy, overhydration, acromegaly, celiac disease

 

URIC ACID (serum)

 

Normal: 2-7 mg/dL

 

Elevated in:

Renal failure, gout, excessive cell lysis (chemotherapeutic agents, radiation therapy, leukemia, lymphoma, hemolytic anemia), hereditary enzyme deficiency (hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl transferase), acidosis, myeloproliferative disorders, diet high in purines or protein, drugs (diuretics, low doses of ASA, ethambutol, nicotinic acid), lead poisoning, hypothyroidism, Addison’s disease, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, active psoriasis, polycystic kidneys

 

Decreased in:

Drugs (allopurinol, high doses of ASA, probenecid, warfarin, corticosteroid), deficiency of xanthine oxidase, SIADH, renal tubular deficits (Fanconi’s syndrome), alcoholism, liver disease, diet deficient in protein or purines, Wilson’s disease, hemochromatosis

 

URINALYSIS

 

Normal:           Color: light straw

Appearance: clear

pH: 4.5-8 (average, 6)

Specific gravity: 1.005-1.030

Protein: absent

Ketones: absent

Glucose: absent

Occult blood: absent

 

Microscopic examination:

RBC: 0-5 (HPF)

WBC: 0-5 (HPF)

Bacteria (spun specimen): absent

Casts: 0-4 hyaline (LPF)

 

UDS (Urine Drug Screen)

 

Cocaine à 2 weeks?   Benzoylecgonine ester (BE) in urine (usually positive for 24 to 48 hrs) / non-enzymatic conversion of serum sample can make BE signifying even more recent use

 

Marijuana à 4 weeks?

Benzodiazepines à

Heroin à

Opiates à

 

Elderly or patients with very concentrated urine may have false positives

 

URINE AMYLASE

 

Normal: 35-260

 

Elevated in:

Pancreatitis, carcinoma of the pancreas

 

URINE BILE

 

Normal: Absent

 

Urine bilirubin:

Hepatitis (viral, toxic, drug-induced), biliary obstruction

 

Urine urobilinogen:

Hepatitis (viral, toxic, drug-induced), hemolytic jaundice, liver cell dysfunction (cirrhosis, infection, metastases)

 

URINE CALCIUM

 

Normal: <250 mg/24 hr

 

Elevated in:

Primary hyperparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis D, bone metastases, multiple myeloma, increased calcium intake, steroids, prolonged immobilization, sarcoidosis, Paget’s disease, idiopathic hypercalciuria, renal tubular acidosis

 

Decreased in:

Hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D-resistant rickets, diet low in calcium, drugs (thiazide diuretics, oral contraceptives), familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, renal osteodystrophy, potassium citrate therapy

 

URINE cAMP

 

Elevated in:

Hypercalciuria, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, primary hyperparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism, rickets

 

Decreased in:

Vitamin D intoxication, sarcoidosis

 

URINE CATECHOLAMINES

 

Normal:            Norepinephrine: <100 ILg/24 hr

Epinephrine: <10 mg/24 hr (55 nmd1/day)

 

Elevated in:

Pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, severe stress

 

URINE CHLORIDE

           

Normal: 110-250 mEq/day

 

Elevated in:

Corticosteroids, Bartter’s syndrome, diuretics, metabolic acidosis, severe hypokalemia

 

Decreased in:

Chloride depletion (vomiting), colonic villous adenoma, chronic renal failure, renal tubular acidosis

 

URINE COPPER

 

Normal: <40 mg/24 hr

 

URINE CORTISOL, FREE

 

Normal: 10-110 mg/24 hr

 

Elevated:

Refer to CORTISOL (serum)

 

URINE CREATININE (24 hr)

 

Normal:            Male: 0.8-1.8 g/day

Female: 0.6-1.6 g/day

 

NOTE: useful test as an indicator of completeness of 24-hour urine collection.

 

URINE EOSINOPHILS

 

Present:

Interstitial nephritis, ATN, UTI, kidney transplant rejection, hepatorenal syndrome

 

URINE GLUCOSE (qualitative)

 

Present in:

Diabetes mellitus, renal glycosuria (decreased renal threshold for glucose), glucose intolerance

 

URINE HEMOGLOBIN, FREE

 

Present in:

Hemolysis (with saturation of serum haptoglobin binding capacity and renal threshold for tubular absorption of hemoglobin)

 

URINE HEMOSIDERIN

 

Present in:

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), chronic hemolytic anemia,

hemochromatosis, blood transfusion, thalassemias

 

URINE 5-HYDROXYINDOLE-ACETOACETATE (URINE 5-HIAA)

 

Normal: 2-8 mg/24hr

 

Elevated in:

Carcinoid tumors, after ingestion of certain foods (bananas, plums, tomatoes, avocados, pineapples, eggplant, walnuts), drugs (MAO inhibitors, phenacetin, methyldopa, glycerol guaiacolate, acetaminophen, salicylates, phenothiazines, imipramine, methocarbamol, reserpine, methamphetamine)

 

URINE INDICAN

 

Present in:

Malabsorption secondary to intestinal bacterial overgrowth

 

URINE KETONES (semi quantitative)

 

Present in:

DKA, alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation, isopropanol ingestion

 

URINE METANEPHRINES

 

Normal: 0-2.0 mg/24 hr

 

Elevated in:

Pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, drugs (caffeine, phenothiazines, MAO

inhibitors), stress

 

URINE MYOGLOBIN

 

Present in:

Severe trauma, hyperthermia, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, carbon monoxide

poisoning, drugs (narcotic and amphetamine toxicity), hypothyroidism, muscle

ischemia

 

URINENITRITE

 

Present in: UTI

 

URINE OCCULT BLOOD

 

Present in:

Trauma to urinary tract, renal disease (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis), renal or ureteral calculi, bladder lesions (carcinoma, cystitis), prostatitis, prostatic carcinoma, menstrual contamination, hematopoeitic disorders (hemophilia, thrombocytopenia), anticoagulants, ASA

 

URINE OSMOLALITY

 

Normal: 50-1200 mOsm/kg

 

Elevated in:

SIADH, dehydration, glycosuria, adrenal insufficiency, high-protein diet

 

Decreased in:

Diabetes insipidus, excessive water intake, IV hydration with D5W, acute renal

insufficiency, glomerulonephritis

 

URINE pH

 

Normal: 4.6-8 (average 6)

 

Elevated in:

Bacteriuria, vegetarian diet, renal failure with inability to form ammonia, drugs (antibiotics, sodium bicarbonate, acetazolamide)

 

Decreased in:

Acidosis (metabolic, respiratory), drugs (ammonium chloride, methenamine mandelate), diabetes mellitus, starvation, diarrhea

 

URINE PHOSPHATE

 

Normal: 0.8-2.0 g/24h

 

Elevated in:

ATN (diuretic phase), chronic renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism, hypomagnesemia, metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, neurofibromatosis, adult-onset vitamin D-resistant hypophosphatemic osteomalacia

 

Decreased in:

Acromegaly, acute renal failure, decreased dietary intake, hypoparathyroidism, respiratory acidosis

 

URINE POTASSIUM

 

Normal: 25-100 mEq/24 hr

 

Elevated in:

Aldosteronism (primary, secondary), glucocorticoids, alkalosis, renal tubular acidosis, excessive dietary potassium intake

 

Decreased in:

Acute renal failure, potassium-sparing diuretics, diarrhea, hypokalemia

 

URINE PROTEIN (quantitative)

 

Normal: < 150 mg/24 hr (< 0.15 g/day)

 

Elevated in:

Renal disease (glomerular, tubular, interstitial), CHF, hypertension, neoplasms of renal pelvis and bladder, multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia

 

URINE SODIUM (quantitative)

 

Normal: 40-220 mEq/day

 

Elevated in:

Diuretic administration, high sodium intake, salt-losing nephritis, acute tubular necrosis, vomiting, Addison’s disease, SIADH, hypothyroidism, CHF, hepatic failure, chronic renal failure, Bartter’s syndrome, glucocorticoid deficiency, interstitial nephritis caused by analgesic abuse, mannitol, dextran or glycerol therapy, milk-alkali syndrome, decreased renin secretion, postobstructive diuresis

Decreased in:

Increased aldosterone, glucocorticoid excess, hyponatremia, prerenal azotemia, decreased salt intake

 

URINE SPECIFIC GRAVITY

 

Normal: 1.005-1.03 (tip: multiply by 30-35 to get ~U Osm)

 

Elevated in:

Dehydration, excessive fluid losses (vomiting, diarrhea, fever), x-ray contrast media, diabetes mellitus, CHF, SIADH, adrenal insufficiency, decreased fluid intake

 

Decreased in:

Diabetes insipidus, renal disease (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis), excessive fluid intake or IV hydration

 

URINE VANILYLMANDELIC ACID (VMA)

 

Normal: <6.8 mg/24 hr

 

Elevated in:

Pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, ganglioblastoma, drugs (isoproterenol, methocarbamol, levodopa, sulfonamides, chlorpromazine), severe stress, after ingestion of bananas, chocolate, vanilla, tea, coffee

 

Decreased in:

Drugs (MAO inhibitors, reserpine, guanethidine, methyldopa)

 

VDRL

 

Positive test:

Syphilis, other treponemal diseases (yaws, pinta, bejel)

 

NOTE: false-positive may be seen in SLE and other autoimmune diseases, infectious mononucleosis, HIV, atypical pneumonia, malaria, leprosy, typhus fever, rat-bite fever, relapsing fever

 

VISCOSITY (serum)

 

Normal: 1.4-1.8 relative to water

 

Elevated in:

Monoclonal gammopathies (Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, multiple myeloma), hyperfibrinogenemia, SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, polycythemia, leukemia

 

D-XYLOSE ABSORPTION

 

Normal: 21% to 31% excreted in 5 hours (0.21-0.31)

 

Decreased in:

Malabsorption syndrome